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    Preventive/defensive expenditure

    Suitability for the forest ecosystem service to be valued:
    Water quality, water purification
    Erosion protection
    Storm protection services
    Description of the method:
    The method uses the costs of preventing damage or degradation of environmental benefits. It involves obtaining a figure for what it would cost to maintain environmental benefits by investing in the prevention of their degradation.
    Benefits of the method:
    Useful in estimating indirect use benefits when prevention technologies are available
    Costs incurred by individuals in order to avoid damages at already existing goods can be interpreted as a lower bound of the willingness to pay for this good
    Limitations of the method:
    Mismatching the benefits of investment in prevention to the original level of benefits may lead to spurious estimates of willingness to pay
    No measure of individual utility if only decision-maker´s preferences count